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Rule19. Joinder of persons needed for just adjudication.

(a)Persons to be joined if feasible. A person who issubject to service of process and whose joinder will not deprive the court of jurisdictionover the subject matter of action shall be joined as a party in the action if(1) in his absence complete relief cannot be accorded among those alreadyparties, or (2) he claims an interest relating to the subject of the action andis so situated that the disposition of the action in his absence may (i) as apractical matter impair or impede his ability to protect that interest or (ii)leave any of the persons already parties subject to a substantial risk ofincurring double, multiple, or otherwise inconsistent obligations by reason ofhis claimed interest. If he has not been so joined, the court shall order thathe be made a party. If he should join as a plaintiff but refuses to do so, hemay be made a defendant, or, in a proper case, an involuntary plaintiff. If thejoined party objects to venue and his joinder would render the venue of theaction improper, he shall be dismissed from the action.

(b)Determination by court whenever joinder not feasible.If a person as described in Subdivision (a)(1)-(2) hereof cannot be made aparty, the court shall determine whether in equity and good conscience theaction should proceed among the parties before it, or should be dismissed, theabsent person being thus regarded as indispensable. The factors to beconsidered by the court include: first, to what extent a judgment rendered inthe person's absence might be prejudicial to him or those already parties;second, the extent to which, by protective provisions in the judgment, by theshaping of relief, or other measure, the prejudice can be lessened or avoided;third, whether a judgment rendered in the person's absence will be adequate;fourth, whether the plaintiff will have an adequate remedy if the action isdismissed for nonjoinder.

(c)Pleading reasons for nonjoinder. A pleading assertinga claim for relief shall state the names, if known to the pleader, of anypersons as described in Subdivision (a)(1)-(2) hereof who are not joined, andthe reasons why they are not joined.

(d)Exception of class actions. This rule is subject to theprovisions of Rule 23.