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Rule1.13. Organization as a client.

(a) A licensed paralegalpractitioner employed or retained by an organization represents theorganization acting through its duly authorized constituents.

(b) If a licensed paralegalpractitioner for an organization knows that an officer, employee or other person associatedwith the organization is engaged in action, intends to act or refuses to act ina matter related to the representation that is a violation of a legalobligation to the organization, or a violation of law that reasonably might be imputed to the organization, and that islikely to result in substantial injury to the organization, then the licensedparalegal practitioner shall proceed as is reasonably necessary in the bestinterest of the organization.  Unless the licensed paralegalpractitioner reasonably believes that it is not necessary in the best interest of theorganization to do so, the licensed paralegal practitioner shall refer thematter to higher authority in the organization, including, if warranted by thecircumstances, to the highest authority that can act on behalf of theorganization as determined by applicable law.

(c) Except as provided in paragraph (d), if

(c)(1) despite the licensedparalegal practitioner?s efforts in accordance with paragraph (b), the highestauthority that can act on behalf of the organization insists upon or fails toaddress in a timely and appropriate manner an action, or a refusal to act, thatis clearly a violation of law, and

(c)(2) the licensed paralegalpractitioner reasonably believes that the violation is reasonably certain to result in substantial injury to the organization, then the licensedparalegal practitioner may reveal information relating to the representationwhether or not Rule 1.6 permits such disclosure, but only if and to the extentthe licensed paralegal practitioner reasonably believes necessary to prevent substantial injury to theorganization.

(d) Reserved.

(e) A licensed paralegalpractitioner who has been discharged and reasonably believes the discharge was because of the licensed paralegalpractitioner?s actions taken pursuant to paragraphs (b) or (c), or whowithdraws under circumstances that require or permit the licensed paralegalpractitioner to take action under either of those paragraphs, shall proceed asthe licensed paralegal practitioner reasonably believes necessary to ensure that the organization?shighest authority is informed of the licensed paralegal practitioner?sdischarge or withdrawal.

(f) In dealing with anorganization?s directors, officers, employees, members, shareholders or otherconstituents, a licensed paralegal practitioner shall explain the identity ofthe client when the licensed paralegal practitioner knows or reasonably should know that the organization?sinterests are adverse to those of the constituents with whom the licensedparalegal practitioner is dealing.

(g) A licensed paralegalpractitioner representing an organization may also represent any of itsdirectors, officers, employees, members, shareholders or other constituents,subject to the provisions of Rule 1.7.  If the organization?s consent to the dualrepresentation is required by Rule 1.7, the consent shall be given by anappropriate official of the organization other than the individual who is to berepresented, or by the shareholders. 



Effective November 1, 2018