(a) While licensed paralegal practitioners are associated in a firm, none of them shall knowingly represent a client when any one of them practicing alone would be prohibited from doing so by Rules 1.7 or 1.9, unless the prohibition is based on a personal interest of the prohibited licensed paralegal practitioner and does not present a significant risk of materially limiting the representation of the client by the remaining licensed paralegal practitioners in the firm.
(b) When a licensed paralegal practitioner has terminated an association with a firm, the firm is not prohibited from thereafter representing a person with interests materially adverse to those of a client represented by the formerly associated licensed paralegal practitioner and not currently represented by the firm, unless:
(b)(1) the matter is the same or substantially related to that in which the formerly associated licensed paralegal practitioner represented the client; and
(c) When a licensed paralegal practitioner becomes associated with a firm, no licensed paralegal practitioner or licensed paralegal practitioner associated in the firm shall knowingly represent a person in a matter in which that licensed paralegal practitioner is disqualified under Rule 1.9 unless:
(c)(1) the personally disqualified licensed paralegal practitioner is timely screened from any participation in the matter and is apportioned no part of the fee therefrom, and
(c)(2) written notice is promptly given to any affected former client.
(d) A disqualification prescribed by this Rule may be waived by the affected client under the conditions stated in Rule 1.7.
Definition of "Firm"
 “Firm,” as used in this rule, is defined in Rule 1.0(d). Whether two or more licensed paralegal practitioners constitute a firm for purposes of determining conflict imputation can depend on the specific facts. See Rule 1.0, Comments  - .
Principles of Imputed Disqualification
 The rule of imputed disqualification stated in paragraph (a) gives effect to the principle of loyalty to the client as it applies to licensed paralegal practitioners who practice in a law firm. Such situations can be considered from the premise that a firm of licensed paralegal practitioners is essentially one licensed paralegal practitioner for purposes of the rules governing loyalty to the client, or from the premise that each licensed paralegal practitioner is vicariously bound by the obligation of loyalty owed by each licensed paralegal practitioner with whom the licensed paralegal practitioner is associated. Paragraph (a) operates only among the licensed paralegal practitioners currently associated in a firm. When a licensed paralegal practitioner moves from one firm to another, the situation is governed by Rules 1.9(b) and 1.10(b).
 The rule in paragraph (a) does not prohibit representation where neither questions of client loyalty nor protection of confidential information are presented. Where one licensed paralegal practitioner in a firm could not effectively represent a given client because of strong political beliefs, for example, but that licensed paralegal practitioner will do no work on the case and the personal beliefs of the licensed paralegal practitioner will not materially limit the representation by others in the firm, the firm should not be disqualified. On the other hand, if an opposing party in a case were owned by a licensed paralegal practitioner in the law firm, and others in the firm would be materially limited in pursuing the matter because of loyalty to that licensed paralegal practitioner, the personal disqualification of the licensed paralegal practitioner would be imputed to all others in the firm.
 The rule in paragraph (a) also does not prohibit representation by others in the firm where the person prohibited from involvement in a matter is neither an attorney nor a licensed paralegal practitioner, such as a licensed paralegal or legal secretary. Nor does paragraph (a) prohibit representation if the licensed paralegal practitioner is prohibited from acting because of events before the person became a licensed paralegal practitioner, for example, work that the person did while a student. Such persons, however, ordinarily must be screened from any personal participation in the matter to avoid communication to others in the firm of confidential information that both the nonparalegal practitioners and the firm have a legal duty to protect. See Rule 5.3.
 Rule 1.10(b) operates to permit a law firm, under certain circumstances, to represent a person with interests directly adverse to those of a client represented by a licensed paralegal practitioner who formerly was associated with the firm. The rule applies regardless of when the formerly associated licensed paralegal practitioner represented the client. However, the law firm may not represent a person with interests adverse to those of a present client of the firm, which would violate Rule 1.7. Moreover, the firm may not represent the person where the matter is the same or substantially related to that in which the formerly associated licensed paralegal practitioner represented the client and any other licensed paralegal practitioner currently in the firm has material information protected by Rules 1.6 and 1.9(c).
 Rule 1.10(d) removes imputation with the informed consent of the affected client or former client under the conditions stated in Rule 1.7. The conditions stated in Rule 1.7 require the licensed paralegal practitioner to determine that the representation is not prohibited by Rule 1.7 and that each affected client or former client has given informed consent to the representation, confirmed in writing. In some cases, the risk may be so severe that the conflict may not be cured by client consent. For a discussion of the effectiveness of client waivers of conflicts that might arise in the future, see Rule 1.7, Comment . For a definition of informed consent, see Rule 1.0(f).
 Where a licensed paralegal practitioner has joined a private firm after having represented the government, imputation is governed by Rule 1.11(b) and (c), not this Rule. Under Rule 1.11(d), where a licensed paralegal practitioner represents the government after having served clients in private practice, nongovernmental employment or in another government agency, former-client conflicts are not imputed to government licensed paralegal practitioners associated with the individually disqualified licensed paralegal practitioner.
 Where a licensed paralegal practitioner is prohibited from engaging in certain transactions under Rule 1.8, paragraph (k) of that Rule, and not this Rule, determines whether that prohibition also applies to other licensed paralegal practitioners associated in a firm with the personally prohibited licensed paralegal practitioner.
Effective November 1, 2018