Rule 59. New trials; amendments of judgment.

(a) Grounds. Subject to the provisions of Rule 61, a new trial may be granted to all or any of the parties and on all or part of the issues, for any of the following causes; provided, however, that on a motion for a new trial in an action tried without a jury, the court may open the judgment if one has been entered, take additional testimony, amend findings of fact and conclusions of law or make new findings and conclusions, and direct the entry of a new judgment:

(a)(1) Irregularity in the proceedings of the court, jury or adverse party, or any order of the court, or abuse of discretion by which either party was prevented from having a fair trial.

(a)(2) Misconduct of the jury; and whenever any one or more of the jurors have been induced to assent to any general or special verdict, or to a finding on any question submitted to them by the court, by resort to a determination by chance or as a result of bribery, such misconduct may be proved by the affidavit of any one of the jurors.

(a)(3) Accident or surprise, which ordinary prudence could not have guarded against.

(a)(4) Newly discovered evidence, material for the party making the application, which he could not, with reasonable diligence, have discovered and produced at the trial.

(a)(5) Excessive or inadequate damages, appearing to have been given under the influence of passion or prejudice.

(a)(6) Insufficiency of the evidence to justify the verdict or other decision, or that it is against law.

(a)(7) Error in law.

(b) Time for motion. A motion for a new trial shall be served not later than 14 days after the entry of the judgment.

(c) Affidavits; time for filing. When the application for a new trial is made under Subdivision (a)(1), (2), (3), or (4), it shall be supported by affidavit. Whenever a motion for a new trial is based upon affidavits they shall be served with the motion. The opposing party has 14 days after such service within which to serve opposing affidavits. The time within which the affidavits or opposing affidavits shall be served may be extended for an additional period not exceeding 21 days either by the court for good cause shown or by the parties by written stipulation. The court may permit reply affidavits.

(d) On initiative of court. Not later than 14 days after entry of judgment the court of its own initiative may order a new trial for any reason for which it might have granted a new trial on motion of a party, and in the order shall specify the grounds therefor.

(e) Motion to alter or amend a judgment. A motion to alter or amend the judgment shall be served not later than 14 days after entry of the judgment.